From a scroll presented by the Norwegian Government to all those
British servicemen that participated in the liberation of Norway from
2. The Illustrious Class carriers, Illustrious, Victorious, Formidable
, together with the Implacable Class carriers, Implacable
formed the centrepiece of the British Pacific Fleet’s (BPF) fast
. The carriers’ FAA pilots flew Barracuda TBR as well as
US Corsairs and Avengers.
3. The Norwegian force came from Sweden.
4. Events at each of the entry ports are being researched and recorded
by the name of the destroyer on the website of the V & W Destroyer
Association. Events at Bergen are described here: http://www.vandwdestroyerassociation.org.uk/HMS_Woolston/Bergen.html
5. John Henry Ruck-Keene (1902-67)
was Captain of the Rosyth Escort Force, October 1944 – May 1945. His elder brother, Philip Ruck-Keene (1897-1977)
, was Commanding Officer HMS Ferrett
, December 1940 – March 1942.
6. In November 1943, while First Lieutenant in HMS Beaufort
Prideaux was MID for his part in the evacuation from Leros in the
Deodecanese. See his memoir in the Royal Navy Museum, Portsmouth (Ref.
) and the account of his life on the publisher’s website
7. As a junior officer, Cdr J.A.J. Dennis
was awarded his DSC for his part in
the heroic action that resulted in Britain obtaining the key that broke
the Germans’ famous ‘Enigma’ encryption system. His description of events at Kristiansand in May 1945
in his memoir can be read on the publisher's website. Cdr Dennis DSC, RN
(Ret.) died in July 2008 at the age of ninety and an obituary
was published in the Telegraph
. His unpublished
memoir is in the Imperial War Museum (IWM Ref. 3129)
8. German Navigational Information – Norwegian Waters. Supplied by
German representatives of the German CinC Norway to the Chief of Staff,
CinC Rosyth, at a meeting held HMS Renown
, 11 May 1945 (NA ADM 1/18665).
9. For a first-hand description see The Liberation of Oslo and Copenhagen: a Midshipman’s memoir by C.B. Koester
; The Northern Mariner / Le Marin du Nord
1993 3(October) 48-60.
10. Thomas Russell’s account of his time on Venomous
has been deleted from the BBC’s WW2 People’s War website but can be seen on the publisher's website.
. Prideaux, 6.
12. The Batterie Vara
(Marvik Fort) is now the Kristiansand Cannon Museum
. Russell, 10.
14. Gunnar Arnfinn Gundersen (1908-88) is almost certainly the
Gundersen described by David Howarth in The Shetland Bus
Nelson, 1951) as “a cheerful merchant service man who had travelled the
world and spoke English with a delightful Hollywood accent." He had
lost four fingers from his left hand and always carried a Colt revolver
in a holster specially made for him. Read more about "Greggo" Gregersen and John Garforth
on the publisher’s
15. From Collister’s account of his time on Venomous
written in December 2006.
16. Christian Bogh-Tobiassen would later become a Captain in the Royal
Norwegian Navy. His account of the liberation of his hometown was taken
from his letters to Robert Moore.
17. Christianstands Tidende
1945 63(6) Tuesday 15 May.
18. From the unpublished memoir of Cdr Dennis in the Imperial War Museum (IWM Ref. 3129)
20. War Diary of 2/19 Civil Affairs Unit (Christiansand Sub-Zone) from
10 May 45 to 30 May 45
with Appendices A to O
(NA Ref. WO 171/8449).
21. This information was supplied by Captain Peter Monte, German Navy, a volunteer researcher at the Horst Bredow Deutsches U-Boot Museum
in Cuxhaven, Germany. The Museum and Archive was founded by Horst
who served in U-288 and was a school teacher after
the war. For more about the German Naval Command in Norway see http://www.axishistory.com/axis-nations/6072-kommandierender-admiral-der-norwegischen-westk%C3%BCste
22. From Lord Teynham’s naval signal
to CiC Rosyth, 16 May. U-2529
given to the Soviet Union and remained in service until September 1972
when she was broken up for scrap. The only Type XXI boat to survive
intact is Wilhelm Bauer (ex U-2540)
at Bremerhaven, Germany.
23. From Russell’s account of his time on Venomous.
24. The photographs of the parade on Norway’s National Day, 17 May, are from Sør Norge i krig og fred, 1940 - 45; en billedbok fra Kristiansand
by Erik Lauritzen (Kristiansand: Forlag Prolibro, 1988). For more about HMS Valorous
25. Air Commodore Derek Waller has been researching the fate of all the
U-boats surrendered at the end of the war for fifty years. The results
of his research have been published in a series of articles on
uboat.net at: http://www.uboat.net/articles/
26. The information about Thomas Henry Poole was supplied to the
publisher by his daughter, Joyce Smith, grand daughter Christine Smith
and grandson, Trevor Hodges.