A HARD FOUGHT SHIP
The story of HMS Venomous

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Joseph Marie Phillipe Bongaerts DFC, FC, OHK1
War hero and developer of the Groningen gas field


Jo BonguetsJo BongaertsJo Bongaerts and Karel Dahmen grew up together at Roermond in the province  of Limburg in the south east of the Netherlands near the German border. They became good friends and were both students at Delft University when Germany invaded the Netherlands. They escaped to England aboard the Zeemanshoop and briefly served on Dutch merchant ships but their lives then took different paths.

Jo Bongaerts enlisted in the Marine Luchtvaart Dienst (MLD), the air force of the Royal Netherland Navy, and trained as a pilot in the Dutch East Indies. On returning to Britain he was retrained by the RAF as a navigator and served in Mitchell B25 bombers with 320 Squadron. He was severely injured when his plane crash landed on the 25 October 1943 returning from a raid on a German airfield near Brest and was awarded the DFC. He told his son that “I couldn’t let my friends go to war, alone!” and after eight months in hospital and rehabilitation he retrained as second pilot and returned to active service with 320 Squadron.

He took part in many operations in support of land forces as they advanced through France and into the Netherlands, including the bombing of the bridges over the River Meuse at his home town of Roermond. Shortly after the liberation of the Netherlands he returned to Roermond and married his fiancee Elly Wong, the daughter of the town's much loved doctor. He ended the war as commander of the Gilzen Rijen airbase between Breda and Tilburg. Lt J.M. Bongaerts DFC, FC, OHK1 was discharged from the Royal Netherlands Navy Reserve on the 16 August 1947.

He returned to the University of Delft to complete his degree in civil engineering and joined Shell who posted him to the Dutch East Indies as a pipeline engineer with
Bataafse Petroleum Maatschappij. His job took him to Java, Borneo and Sumatra and he lived with Elly in Dutch compounds where the local staff helped her look after three adopted children, two boys and a girl. When conditions became difficult after Sukarno came to power Shell recalled him to the Netherlands in 1961 and made him General Manager of the Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (Netherlands Oil Company), jointly owned by Shell and Esso, just two years after NAM struck gas in the province of Groningen in the north east of the Netherlands. He spent the next twelve years developing the fields to supply natural gas to Holland and Western Europe. This key position made him an important contributor to the economic developement of the Netherlands. He was appointed as Director of Shell Netherlands in 1966 and retired in August 1974 but continued to be called upon as an advisor to major Dutch companies. He died at his home in Assen on the 26 December 1989.

But if you have not already done so you should start by reading the story of the voyage of the Zeemanshoop and its rescue by HMS Venomous

Jo Bongaerts was born on the 17 March 1915 at Venlo in the province of Limburg in the South East of the Netherlands near the German border. His father, Marie Elie Hubert Charles Bongaerts, was the engineer in charge of the rolling stock of the Netherlands State Railways.

The family moved to Maastricht, the capital of Limburg, and in 1918 Jo’s mother, Emma Bongaerts, died leaving his father to look after eight children, four boys and four girls. In 1926 the family moved to Roermond, in the center of Limburg, where Jo’s Uncle Albert, lived as a bachelor in a spacious, rambling house. This kind man had already provided a home to another of Jo’s uncles with his wife and two children and it now became a household of fourteen, ably managed by the aunt, Maria Goossens.

When the children were of high school age he provided them with a room on the second floor as a sort of club-room where they could meet their friends. One of these was Karel Dahmen, four years his junior, who in 1940 would became his partner on the voyage of the Zeemanshoop to England. Karel has very fond memories of the fun they had in this room and in this hospitable household:

"We played cards, talked a lot, listened to the gramophone and, yes, this was where we learned to dance, and sometimes, when we could afford it, spent a Sunday afternoon at 'The Dansant' - Tea Dance. We belonged to the same tennis and rowing clubs, not just for love of the sport but also because we enjoyed the social side, like rowing on the River Meuse to one or other village where there was a summer fair. And sometimes the whole gang of us went on bike trips into Belgium or Germany, both frontiers being only some ten miles from our town. Jo's youngest sister was a dear friend as was Elly, Jo’s future wife. Elly was the daughter of the much loved doctor Dolf (Adolph) Wong Lun Hing and her lovely mother, Zus, who played beautifully on the piano."

After leaving school Jo studied civil engineering at the University of Delft where he took a leading role in his student organisation and had a close circle of friends. Three years later Karel Dahmen arrived in Deft to study mining engineering and became part of Jo’s group of friends which included several students from the Province of Limburg, which helped Karel feel more at home. When the war started in 1939 many of the students were mobilised and some came to the lectures in uniform.

On the 10 May 1940 Germany invaded the Netherlands and on the evening of the 14 May when they were having supper together in Bongaert's "digs" above a grocery store in Delft they heard the radio broadcast announcing the surrender. Karel said "let's go to England" and Jo paused a moment and said "let me finish my egg first". Roermond was already in enemy hands but he would be leaving behind his fiancee, Elly Wong, as well as his parents. That was their last meal in Holland. They cycled to Scheveningen, met two other students, Harry Hack from Delft  and Lou Meijers from Groningen, and commandeered the Zeemanshoop for the voyage to England.

On arrival at Dover aboard HMS Venomous the Dutch crew and passengers went by train to London and after a night in a Salvation Army hostel the Netherlands Emergency Committee at Dorland House offered them its assistance. Freddie Knottenbelt, the Secretary of the Committee took a particular interest in the student crew of the Zeemanshoop. He arranged for them to stay at a b&b in Putney and they visited him at his beautiful family home in Roehampton.

This was their first time in England and naturally they went sightseeing in London. Jo thought they ought to change what little Dutch money they had, about ten guilders between them, into English pounds, shilling and pence  and "when Jo has an idea  he wants to do it right away". He asked a policeman the way to the Bank of England and after checking their newly issued Identity Cards (all foreigners were suspected fifth columnists) he directed them to the building that housed the greatest  monetary empire in the world ...

"We saw a facade with Greek columns  and Jo led us up the stone steps to where an impressive doorman asked what our business would be. When we said we wanted to change Dutch currency he guided us to a room and told us to wait.  A little later a be-spectacled gentleman entered with a briefcase and we told him a little about the voyage and answered his questions about the war before he asked how much currency we wanted to change. When Jo told him he burst out laughing. They were expecting a visit from some people of Shell who had escaped with a lot of Dutch money. He explained that in this building they really did not have any cash, they only handled documents, but he was so nice as to phone an office of Midland Bank at the end of the street and they accepted all our Dutch money." (Karel Dahmen)

Sir David Ross, the Provost of Oriel College, Oxford, where Maarten Knottenbelt was a student, invited them to stay for two weeks and get to know student life. Afterwards they worked as farm labourers hoeing sugar beet in Oxfordshire to earn some money before returning to London where Jo and his friend Karel Dahmen, having failed to join the remnants of the Dutch army or navy, became seamen on Dutch merchant ships.

Jo Bongaerts joined the 1288 grt Prins Frederik Hendrik as Assistant Engineer and sailed as part of an Atlantic Convoy to Canada. He was promoted to full engineer on the return crossing. In September 1940 Bongaerts enlisted in the Marine Luchtvaart Dienst (MLD), the air force of the Royal Netherland Navy, and after two months basic training at RNMS Stuyvesant at Holyhead, Anglesy, was sent to Morokrembangan, the naval air station at Surabaya in the Dutch East Indies, where he began training as a pilot on the 15 January 1941.

Jo Bongaerts and fellow traineed pilots at MorkkrembanganPilot training on the Ryan PT-22, military training aircraft
Jo Bongaerts and fellow trainees (left) learned to fly at the Morokrembangan naval air station in American built Ryan PT-22 military trainers
Courtesy of Marc Bongaerts

After qualifying as a flying officer he returned to England in November 1941 and was posted to No 12 Flying Training School of the RAF at Grantham (Spittalgate) where, surpisingly, the RAF re-trainined him to became a navigator on American built Mitchell bombers with No. 320 (Netherlands) Squadron RAF which was formed from the personnel of the Royal Netherlands Naval Air Service (the Marine-Luchtvaartdienst or MLD). Harry Hack, the "captain" of the Zeemanshoop was an engineering officer with Squadron 320. But before he joined his future squadron he had two months training in blind landings in bad weather conditions at the Beam Approach Training School, RAF Watchfield, and spent June and July 1942 at the School of General Reconnaissance, Blackpool followed by six months at the Coastal Operational Training Unit, Silloth. He was lucky to escape serious injury when the pilot crashlanded his Lockheed Hudson at Silloth.

Jo's Hudson bomber crash landed at RAF Silloth, 1942
Jo Bongaerts' Hudson crash landed during training at RAF Silloth on the Sollway Firth, West of Carlisle
Courtesy of Marc Bongaerts

It was not until the 18 February 1943 that  Jo Bongaerts finally joined Squadron 320 at RAF Bircham Newton, an important coastal command station in West Norfolk. It was more than two years since he began training as a pilot in the Duch East Indies which by now was in Japanese hands. The Bircham Newton Memorial Project keeps alive memories of the airfield and the men who served there:

"There were far too many visiting units flying from Bircham Newton during WW2 to mention them all by name. However, some early visitors will be mentioned because of the heroics they performed and the losses they sustained in the early years of the forgotten anti-shipping campaign conducted against enemy convoys, ports and airfields across the North Sea, particularly along the Dutch coast and Friesian Islands. This campaign was conducted by 235 Squadron (flying Blenheims), 500 Squadron (flying Ansons and Hudsons), 320 (Dutch) Squadron (flying Hudsons), 407 (Canadian) Squadron (flying Hudsons) and other squadrons."

320 Squadron moved to RAF Methwold on the 15 March 1943 but by the end of the month was based at RAF Attlebridge, eight miles north west of Norwich. On the 1 June 1943 it was reassigned to Second Tactical Air Force (TAF) supporting the 21 Army Group by attacking enemy communications targets and airfields. In August when the squadron moved to RAF Lasham near Alton in Hampshire and its operations moved from the Dutch coast to north east France.

Ground crew load bombs into Michell
Ground crew prepare a Mitchell B25 for a bombing raid in France
Courtesy of Marc Bongaerts
Mitchell bomber over Francxem, 1943
A Mitchell B25 on a bombing raid over France
Jo Bongaerts, the Observer Bomb Aimer, took this photograph from the glass domed front turret
Courtesy of Marc Bongaerts

Jo Bongaerts' plane was badly shot up on the 25 October 1943 during a raid on the airfield of Lanveoc-Poulmic near Brest:

"The lead plane FR162/W (carrying the commander of 320 squadron) received a direct hit from AA-fire while flying over the target and exploded, throwing the rest of the flight into chaos. Bomber FR162/L was also hit, badly damaged and hurtled towards the ground but the pilot managed to level out. Bongaert's plane (FR162/P) was also badly damaged by shrapnel. Bongaerts was in the observation dome, which was shattered and his instruments damaged. The plane was too heavily damaged to continue the flight and drop its bombs and turned around back to the UK. Bongaerts' knee had been injured and he wasn't able to free himself and leave the icy cold observation dome. He put a make-shift pressure bandage on the wound and a gunner called Hamelink came to check up on him and put on fresh bandage, but couldn't free Bongaerts."
 
The pilot steered for the nearest airport, Perranporth in Cornwall. The FR162/P made a near-perfect belly landing. Bongaerts was trapped and had to be cut free with axes and then spent ten weeks in Truro Hospital recovering from his injuries (he lost a knee cap). Karel Dahmen heard that his friend had been hurt in the raid, bought a bottle of Dutch gin and took the train to Truro to visit him. On the 11 January 1944 he was transferred to the RAF Medical Rehabilitation Unit in Loughborough where he spent the next three months before returning to 320 Squadron at RAF Station Dunsfold in June 1944.

Jo Bongaerts Mitchell bomber after crash landingJo Bonguets receiving his DFC
Left: Jo Bongaerts being cut free from his Mitchel bomber after crash landing near Perranporth
Right: Capt Roosenberg on left and Jo Bongaerts on right receiving their DFC
These photographs from the Roosenberg family album were published in
De operaties van 320 squadron by Nico Geldorf (2006) and used here courtesy of the author
The originals are now in the Netherlands Institute of Military History, The Hague


Jo Bongaerts being awarded the DFC by Air Marshall Sir Basil Embry, 12 February 1944For the attack on Lanveoc-Poulmic, Bongaerts and Roosenburg (the plane's captain) were awarded the DFC and were presented with it on the 12 February 1944 by Air Marshall Sir Basil Embry (Air Officer Commanding, No. 2 Group) in the presence of the entire 320 squadron.

His injuries prevented him from returning to his former position in the turrett of the Mitchell B-25 as observer and bomb aimer but he told his son Marc “I couldn’t let my friends go to war, alone!” In July 1944 he began training flights at RAF Station Finmere as 2nd Pilot, sitting next to the 1st pilot of the Mitchell bomber. Marc's description of his subsequent service career is based on the entries in his father's Log Book:

"The 1st pilot, Cees Witholt, was a good friend of my father. They moved to RAF Station Swanton Morley as part of 2 GSU (Ground Support Unit) on the 18 July and got used to working together on training flights before being posted to 226 squardron at RAF Station Hartford-Bridge on the 30 July. Their first flight from here was on 3 August in an Oxford and their first missions were bombing targets on the River Dives at St. Pierre sur Dives in Normandy on the 12th and 13th of August.
    From then on they were kept very busy bombing targets in France and the Netherlands. In August there were raids on Risle near Brionne, Alons on the Seine, Celrmont and Rouen. In September they bombed Abbeville, Givet, strong points near Boulogne, road and railway links at Beveland in Zeeland (Netherlands), the harbour of Breskens in Zeeland, the gun batteries at Fort La Crèche near Boulogne and military barracks near Ede (Veluwe, Netherlands).
    On the 18 September he was posted back to Squadron 320 at  RAF Dunsfold with Witholt as 1st pilot and Weysters and Bernett as crew members.  They began operstional flights on the 26 September, bombing Breskens in Zeeland  and Eemrich, Germany. On the 2 October 1944 they moved to Brussels Melsbroek, and bombed Huizen near Arnhem, Angeren and oil dumps near Amersfoort. The whole of 320 Squadron joined them at Melsbroek on the 17 October. The war moved closer to home for Jo Bongaerts on the 3 - 6 November when they bombed the bridges at Venlo and Roermond where he was born and grew up.

That Christmas he and his old friend Karel Dahmen  had a meal together at the May Fair Hotel which had one of the best restaurants in town:

"At the end of 1944, I was in London for business about transportation of enlisted volunteers for the Marine Brigade. I was scheduled to return to Oostende on an LST (Landing Ship Tank). But the sailing was delayed until after Christmas. At the Dutch Navy Headquarters I met Jo who was also stranded in London. As it was Christmas Eve we decided to have dinner together in one of the better restaurants in London, It being Christmas Eve, the restaurant closed at 10 pm. By that time we had finished our meal and paid the bill. The waiter said to us that after the restaurant closed they would have a party in the kitchen with the cooks and servers and invited us to join. It was a delightful Christmas Eve party."

Marc continues the account of his father's service:

"320 Squadron had moved to RAF Station Swanton Morley on the 25 November and operational flights began on the 5 January 1945 with raids on a communication centre near St.Vith, and a road bridge at Zaltbommel in the Netherlands. From the 6 February 1945 there were bombing raids on Zutphen, Emmerich, Xanten, Kavelaer, Weeze, Nieuwkerk, Goch and on the rail junction near Assen in the Netherlands, his future home. The crew of his Mitchell bomber were Witholt, 1st pilot, Weyster and Jo Bongaerts as 2nd pilots and on later flights Smith, v.Dam and Merret."

Jo's elder brother, Charles M.H.J. Bongaerts (1909-44), had married Karel Dahmens sister 'Trees' (Theresa). In 1940 Charles was a reserve officer in the Dutch army and during the five day war he fought on the so called “Grebbe Berg Line”, that the Dutch army held to the very end, repulsing heavy assaults from the German forces. Charles Bongaerts was the head of the fire service in the coal mining area and this gave him access to vehicles which enabled him to play a prominent part in the underground resistance. They put up airmen in their home and transported them south on the long journey to England via Belgium, France and Spain. On one occasion Charles Bongaerts stopped a German convoy and, claiming to be on urgent business, got a mechanic to repair his vehicle while three American airmen were in the back. His group was infiltrated in 1944, Charles was betrayed and died in a German concentration camp on the 23 November 1944.

During the winter of 1944-5 Roermond was under continuous attack from British and American forces on the other side of the River Meuse. The town was under continuous shell fire; people lived in their cellars and only came out to find something to eat. German efforts to defend the city were hampered by the presence of civilians and they were forcibly evacuated but Jo's future father in law, Dolf (Adolph) Wong Lun Hing, the much loved local doctor, insisted on staying with his family to help the few hundred people who remained. Marc Bongaerts mother told him that:

"the family had been hiding all that time in the cellar of the house on the Swalmer Straat. Almost at the end of the siege they were discovered and the German army commander ordered them to be deported. But another German officer told the commander that he would arrange it but he did not do it. Instead he gave them food and let them stay.”


TAF bombed Roermond BridgeJo Bongaerts and Elly Wong, 1945
Left: 320 Squadron operating as part of the 2nd Tactical Air Force (TAF) bombed the Roermond bridge across the Meuse
Right: Jo Bongaerts and Elly Wong together again in Roermond shortly before their marriage

Courtesy of Marc Bongaerts

Jo Bongaerts flew 57 operational sorties during his service with 320 squadron. He returned home to Roermond to be told that his elder brother, Charles M.H.J. Bongaerts (1909-44), a hero in the underground, had been betrayed and died in a German concentration camp on the 23 November 1944. Charles Bongaerts was married to the elder sister of his friend, Karel Dahmen.

Jo and Ellie were engaged before the war began and she had been waiting for him all these long years. On the 31 May 1945, one month after Holland was completely liberated, the wedding took place in Roermond. His friends in 320 squadron arranged a fly-by of three "Mitchells"  with a bomb load of flowers. One of the crewmen had travelled to Roermond to signal when the bombers were to start their fly pass by firing a flare when the married couple left the church. The first run over the "target area" was not exactly successful, as one of the bombers dropped its "bomb load" on a funeral procession. They were more successful on their next run. Jo and his wife Elly were touched by the efforts of his comrades.

On the 16 August 1945 320 Squadron was based at RAF Station Achmer in Germany but in 1946 he was appointed Military Commander of Gilzen Rijen, one of the oldest air bases in the Netherlands, located between Breda and Tilburg. The Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) resumed operations from the airfield in 1946, using it as a training base for pilots and air traffic controllers. Housing was scarce and Jo and Elly's first home was in a small timber building in the woods near the airbase.  Lt J.M. Bongaerts DFC, FC, OHK1 was discharged from the Royal Netherlands Navy Reserve on the 16 August 1947.


In September 1947 he joined DSM, a large chemical concern which had developed out of Dutch State Mines, the state owned coal mining company, as a safety engineer. This did not suit him and in September of the following year he returned to Delft University to complete his degree in civil engineering and on graduating in 1952 he applied for a job at Royal Dutch Shell. At the interview he was asked why he was still studying so long after the war had finished and Jo disarmingly replied "well, you need that rotten little paper, otherwise you get nowhere". He got the job and in June was sent to newly independent Indonesia as an engineer with Bataafse Petroleum Maatschappij, initially responsible for building pipelines from inland oil fields to harbours on the coast. His wife, the former Elly Wong, went with him. Jo joined the management team responsible for finding new oil fields, exploitation and distribution. His job took him and Elly from Java to Borneo and Sumatra.

They adopted three children, Marc, Peter and Danielle. Jo's sister told Karel Dahmen that:

On the birthday of one of these toddlers, he was given an enormous bowl of ice cream.  Jo had specified that the child would be allowed to dig with his little hands in it, put it in his mouth and smear it over his face, chair, table, wherever he wanted, so as to get the maximum joy out of it.

One of Marc's earliest memories was of  life in the Dutch compound at Balikpapan on the south coast of Borneo, the nice houses, beautiful scenery and friendly staff who were like members of the family, "I remember one of the female members of staff hurrying to fetch me from my room  when there was an an earthquake to take me to safety outside!" Two or three times a year they returned home to the Netherlands or to Belgium on holiday.

Karel worked at Standard Vacuum Petroleum Maatschappy, the Dutch affiliate of Stanvac Eastern, and their paths crossed once more when they were both working in Sumatra.


Jo Bongaerts and his wife, EllyJo Bongaerts
Jo Bongaerts and Elly at the reception for the departure of his predecessor as General Manager of Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij in 1961
And at work in his office

Jo BongaertsWhen Sukarno came to power in Indonesia life became difficult for foreign companies and their employees. In 1961 Jo was transferred to Holland and appointed General Manager of the Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (Netherlands Oil Company), jointly owned by Shell and Esso. This was just two years after NAM struck gas in the province of Groningen in the north east of the Netherlands. The next twelve years were the challenge of a lifetime as Jo and his co-workers developed this operation to supply natural gas to Holland and Western Europe. He described this achievement in an interview for an article published by In Het Viezier in 1980 fourteen years after his retirement:

“This was the most dynamic period of NAM. Within a  decade we built a totally new industry with a team of damn loyal guys. There were periods when we worked day and night. The Groningen gas field was a present from Heaven. It became the basis of NAM’s present developments. It all started in 1959 when an exploratory gas well was being drilled. At a depth of about 3000 meters a gas containing formation was entered. The first estimates were rather conservative; they talked about a proven reservoir of 60 billion cubic meters. For that time this was quite spectacular. Further drilling increased the reserves to 300 billion, 1000 billion and eventually to 2925 billion cubic meters."

The ‘culture’ of NAM before 1959 was that of an oil production company and Jo Bongaerts' outlook was that of a typical oil production engineer:

We were ‘oil farmers’ and at that time, nobody in Shell was much interested in gas. It was just a damn nuisance if you hit gas when drilling for oil. Our small team knew very little about gas production. But our co-workers were enthusiastic – I could name a few such as Jan Asselberg, Jan Uleman, Johan van Bethlehem and Dirk Prent. They did a fantastic job. The people at Hudson Engineering in Houston also solved a lot of problems. Special techniques had to be developed, such as for removing the condensate out of the gas; problems having to do with the enormous production capacity of these wells. Also – and that was rather unique at that time - we started to drill multiple wells from one location. This required only one central treating installation and also reduced the amount of land needed to drill and produce gas from these wells. During my time with NAM we installed 24 of these ‘clusters’, a formidable achievement!
    The 'Nederlandse Gas Unie’ was founded for the distribution and transportation of this natural gas. NAM started to deliver into their system by 1963. We were environmentally conscientious and always worked in close consultation with the provincial government.


Jo Bongaerts shows the Provincial Governor aroundQueen Juliana being shown round by Jo Bongaerts in 1963
Left: Jo Bongaerts with the Governor of Groningen inspecting the first gas producing well on the 25 July 1963
Right: Queen Juliana visiting the gas field on the 22 June 1965 with Jo Bongaerts on right

In 1966 Jo was promoted to Director of Shell Netherlands, a post he held until his retirement in August 1974. During his time with NAM, Jo Bongaerts was also Curator of the University of Groningen, President of Maartenswouden, the foundation for the care of the mentally handicapped and a member of the Council of the University Hospital Groningen.

Jo and Elly spent their retirement at Assen in the province of Drente in the north east of the Netherlands. His reputation ensured he was frequently called upon to advise major companies including Philips and Océ. Sadly, his wife Elly was diagnosed rather late as having Kahler disease and died in 1985. Jo Bongaerts died on the 26 December 1989 at Assen. His three children are doing well and have families of their own. Marc has a son and a daughter, both at university, and Marc's sister, Danielle, lives nearby in Breda with her daughter.


Jo Bongaerts service in the Royal Dutch Naval Air Service (RDNAS), is based on his Logbook and the photographs sent to me by his son, Marc. plus his official service record supplied by the NIMH. The personal memories of his friend Karel Dahmen were invaluable. De operaties van 320 squadron (2006) by Nico Geldhof is the best guide to 320 Squadron but English readers will enjoy The Flying Dutchman: An exciting true story of war in the air; by Hans van der Kop (Patrick Stephens, 1985), a former Wing Commander and a personal friend of Jo Bongaerts. Jo Bongaerts Record of Service is copied from his Logbook.
The account of his time with NAM developing the Groningen gas fields is entirely based on an interview at his home in Assen published by
In Het Viezier in 1980.


Read about the lives of the other three student crew members of the Zeemanshoop
Jo Bongaerts' close friend, Karel Dahmen, the medical student Lou Meijers and the "Captain", Harry Hack


Return to the Home Page for the Zeemanshoop
See the Biographical Dictionary of the passengers and crew of the Zeemanshoop


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